Puberty and adolescence are not synonyms of each other. Puberty is a stage of adolescence when children reach sexual maturity. It is a period between approximately 10 years and 15 years. Girls reach puberty a little earlier than boys and generally come
out a little earlier. Adolescence continues much longer; certainly until after the age of twentieth.
Sexual maturity is a very important step from an evolutionary point of view. Hormones set it in motion and of course not only influence
the changes in the body, but also the changes in the brain, which in turn cause changes in perception and behaviour. Hormones don't just cause the body to change. Social identity, sexual interests and the way in which friendships are handled also change.
During puberty, i.e. the first phase of adolescence, very important biological changes take place. Changes that are mainly controlled by hormones and where ultimately it is only about one thing; preparing the child's body to be able to have offspring, to
be able to take care of the offspring and thus to keep its own genes instant. Puberty is intended to prepare young people for reproduction. That doesn't just happen. A large number of changes are required to initiate puberty and, by extension, adolescence.
The functioning of the hypothalamus is the driving force behind the onset of puberty.
Other systems also play an important role. The body of teenagers changes. In girls the fat reserves increase and in boys the muscles, hair growth and voice change. These
changes in themselves already have a lot of influence on the social identity of adolescents, but in addition to the visible physical changes, major changes are also taking place in the brain. Not only sexuality awakens, but especially in boys also aggressive
and risk-seeking behavior. All of these hormonal, physical, and neural changes have a major impact on behavior as puberty transitions into adolescence between the ages of 13 and 15.
Young adolescents not only rebel against their father and mother, but
also against teachers and other authorities. Their behavior is often impulsive and sometimes downright annoying. They take big risks without worrying about the possible consequences. They only think of very short term rewards especially if it consists of the
appreciation and even rather admiration of their peers.