In contrast to all the other pages (exept gedraag-je and worm) of this website is this section not in English. Perhaps I will translate the story on a later moment.


Brain scans of adolescents show that their brains are far from being mature. Brain development continues into adulthood and is a dynamic process. Even after puberty, the brain still undergoes major structural changes. This is especially true of the prefrontal cortex. This area directs processes such as the activities of working memory and the shaping of complex and goal-oriented actions. The still developing prefrontal cortex also has consequences for cognitive processes such as learning, thinking about one's own thinking (metacognition) and planning. It also affects social processes, because the emotional system and the communication between that system and the cognitive system is still developing. Adolescents can therefore rely less on somatic labeling, a very important neural process, which is discussed in detail in other parts of this website. One consequence of this is, among other things, that especially in a phase of life in which adolescents have to make many choices, their ability to make decisions does not yet function optimally. Other consequences are that mental processes such as slowing down and delaying behavior, directing attention, managing emotions, dealing with criticism, planning, but also flexibly switching between new and old rules to tackle a taskare less developed. 

Adolescents, on the other hand, are well able to reason hypothetically and think outside the box because of the flexibility of their brains. It is not until mid-adolescence that young people begin to use processes that improve decision-making. A development that continues until late adolescence around the age of twenty-five. They therefore come to decisions in a different way than adults. They have to use their prefrontal cortex much more intensively. These behavioral differences are functional because they prepare adolescents for adulthood. Risky behavior and sensation seeking are necessary for adolescents to create the space to leave the safe parental home. Adolescents exhibit more risky behavior than adults, but they only do so when they are in the company of peers. This can be explained because daring to take risks goes hand in hand with a desire for appreciation within one's own age group.

The function of adolescence

Adolescence in the development of a person is meant to prepare her or him for adulthood. This means that people must not only be able to conceive offspring but also to take good care of them. They must therefore be able to fulfill a meaningful role in their group and in their social environment. Puberty prepares a person for procreation and in further adolescence the youngster must learn to control his impulses and become a social being. Certainly not an easy task for a 'male', because he produces an overdose of testosterone to prepare himself for the hunt for food and for a partner. Under the influence of the extra production of the hormone testosterone, emotions and impulses can run high. 'Males' and 'females' must learn to deal with their own intentions and feelings as well as the intentions and feelings of others. They must learn to recognize those intentions. They must learn to delay behavior and ignore a short-term reward. Although the world of the 'males' and the 'females' no longer resembles that of today's boys and girls, the processes described above have not changed much. This is not surprising when one considers that only in the last 5000 years of the million years that hominids have existed, the physical environment and especially intellectual existence have changed drastically.

Young adolescents

Young adolescents react not only to their parents but also to teachers and other authorities. Their behavior is impulsive and often downright annoying. They take big risks without worrying about the possible consequences. They only think of very short-term rewards, especially if it consists of the admiration of their peers. To make matters worse, they are also relatively insensitive to punishment in this phase. You wonder how it is possible that mankind made it through evolution despite such a completely idiotic stage in their development. Natural selection makes mincemeat with properties that stand in the way of proper functioning. But just because of the fact we're still here, that can't be the case. Adolescent and adolescent behavior can be very difficult but it is very necessary. Researchers looking at the brain and genetics from the perspective of evolution paint a positive picture of adolescence. An adolescent is not a semi-finished product, but a highly sensitive being, who can adapt well and has the best brains imaginable to make the step from the safe home to the complicated outside world. If adolescents mainly had traits such as fear of life, impulsiveness, rashness, selfishness, they would never pass through natural selection.

We must be careful to focus on the behavior of adolescents that annoys us and, based on that, only see this period as a problem. The short fuse, the preference for sometimes dangerous kicks, the rejection of the authority of parents and school and short-term thinking may be very impulsive, but it is of great importance in development to ensure that adolescents are open to new things. Adolescents should seek out new experiences, take risks, and exhibit impulsive behavior. Curiosity and the desire for excitement are necessary to give young people the push to fly away. Leaving the nest includes seeking out new experiences and taking greater risks without letting fear slow you down too much.

Rejection against the family and especially against your parents has the evolutionary advantage that the chance of inbreeding decreases. Moreover, the focus on the family gives way to focus on peers. Friendships become more intimate and more focused on trust and mutual evaluation. Adolescence is also an important period for learning to think critically and for learning to put yourself in someone else's shoes and thus understand someone else's perspective. For example: "He thinks she thinks he thinks because he thought before...".
Unfortunately, this development is not without its flaws. Almost all types of accidents are most common between the ages of 15 and 25. Alcohol and drug addiction also often started at that age.

Adolescents behave differently from adults in many ways. That's because their brains work differently. There is not yet an optimal balance between the functioning of different brain regions, which means that behavior can change quickly.

Not only are certain brain areas in the adolescence not yet fully grown, the communication between brain areas is also not yet very good. The thoughtless behavior of adolescents is a hallmark of that stage of development. Of course this has consequences for the way in which adolescents deal with new information to be learned. It also has consequences for the way they deal with emotions, such as with anger or sadness, and it has consequences for the way they deal with others. Moreover, it has a major influence on the image that adolescents have of themselves. That is, they are self-centered. This attitude is necessary to develop a self-image, a self-concept. The emotional system in close interaction with the prefrontal cortex also plays an important role in the development of a self-concept.

Adolescents mirror themselves to their friends. They try things out and see if they are accepted by their parents, their teachers but especially by their friends. Adolescents have friends because it's nice to be able to trust someone and share secrets. When this trust is betrayed, which often happens, especially in early adolescence, the suffering seems incalculable. Fighting, being temporarily expelled from the group or ignoring each other can be the result. Social exclusion activates the same areas in the brain as physical pain and thus is very unpleasant. It is even worse if exclusion is not temporary at all. Some young people are permanently ignored. This often goes hand in hand with bullying, especially in early adolescence. That is very harmful to the victims. It is the task of adults to set limits and to take measures to stop bullying. But whatever sanctions are taken, adolescents always continue to cross boundaries. Adolescence isn't just fun things. Annoying things, even bullying and exclusion, are part of it. However, the adequate response from adults is also part of it, both in a positive and negative sense.


Behavior changes during adolescence. Adolescents' view of others and of the world changes, as does their personality, motivation and self-belief. In addition, they develop metacognitive functions. That is, functions that make it possible to think about your own thinking. Strategies to gain autonomy and control over their own lives are increasing. All these changes in mental settings are the result of the structural and functional changes in their brains. Changes that at the same time can also cause adolescents to struggle with great existential insecurities. Some adolescents shout this from the rooftops, but with others they are barely visible. They keep their emotional storm inside.

Behavior is controlled by the brain and compared to adults, adolescents make less use of brain areas that are important in controlling behaviour. These areas of the brain are also important in signaling mistakes, thinking ahead and maintaining attention. If you add the infamous "short fuse" to that, it is not surprising that both their environment and themselves can suffer from their behavior. These areas are located in or controlled by the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is central to the regulation of many other brain regions. It regulates, among other things, our impulse control, the execution of complex behaviour, planning, organization and making choices. In adolescence, the prefrontal cortex is not yet fully developed. The development continues until about the twenty-fifth year of life.

Adults make extensive use of a brain system, in which events are compared with previous experiences. They can use that system better than adolescents, because their brains work faster and more efficiently and because they simply have more previous experiences. In themselves, adolescents use the same cognitive strategies as adults when solving problems. But in everyday life, when those tasks also have an emotional charge, it becomes more difficult. In that case, they are more likely to opt for a strategy that yields a profit in the short term. Winning is mainly about appreciation and even better admiration from peers. That can lead to risky behavior. They can often complete a task at an adult level, but the prefrontal cortex of adolescents has to work much harder for this, because the emotional system does not support the prefrontal cortex yet or too little. As a result, the prefrontal cortex of an adolescent reaches its limit more quickly.

However, most young people calmly move through puberty and, by extension, adolescence. Only 5% have real problems. This does not alter the fact that the behavior of adolescents, especially in a group, can be quite difficult to deal with and to manage. Also the behavior of the 95% 'normals'. Moreover, the 5% with problems include both young people who bring out their problem behavior and young people who keep it inside themselves. At first sight it looks like the latter group causes less problems. But they do cause problems for themselves and get in the way of their social development. In addition, they are not infrequently bullied or ignored by their peers.

Somatic marker

In adolescence, two brain systems develop that are important for behavior. One has to do with the development of the frontal cortex and thus involves logical thinking, planning, organizing, making choices and deciding. The other system has to do with emotional considerations and the emotional coloring of behavior. These two systems are closely related. The rational system of logical thinking is highly dependent on the emotional system. The emotional system, in turn, is dependent on experiences in the outside world and on fysical conditions that come from within the body. The order in which these systems develop is more or less the same for everyone, but the pace varies from person to person.

It is also difficult for adults to make a responsible assessment of personal and social problems. However, they are "helped" in this by a system that makes them feel bad about one choice, while the alternative option makes them feel good. Adults subconsciously rely on that system. It is part of their inner profile.

The way in which this happens is called the somatic marker in the theory of the American neuropsychologist Antonio Damasio. This theory is extensively discussed in this website on other pages.
Do adults always make the right decisions? No, certainly not, because this system also depends on how the brain constructs reality and how the institutions that make that construction, the so-called dispositional representations, have fixed reality in the brain. However, research shows that people who have to base their decisions purely on the rational system, for example because they have suffered serious brain damage to parts of the emotional system, make disastrous decisions, bad for themselves and those around them.
Higher cognitive functions are strongly determined by the genetic background of a person. The limits of behaviour, cognitive abilities and controlling emotions are largely determined by the genetic code. However, the environment in which a child grows up also plays an important role. The environment must ensure that the genetically determined abilities are stimulated, so that these genes are activated. A child who is born with a lot of cognitive talent needs his environment to develop this talent. Conversely, however, it is not the case that children with little innate talent can still develop cognitive talents in a promising environment. Usually environment and genetic background are closely related. A child who grows up in an underprivileged environment often belongs to a family that has lived in an underprivileged environment for generations. And thus the environment partly determines the genetic code.

Higher cognitive functions such as making choices, deciding, judging, reasoning, ordering, estimating, etc. are very important in learning. At a later stage, functions such as abstraction and generalization are added. In addition, the metacognitive functions also develop.
Some cognitive functions, such as language skills, are inherited by every child from birth, but others must be developed through upbringing and education. In order to do that, a young person needs thinking strategies and for those strategies he needs anchor points. Anchor points in the form of factual knowledge and criteria. Thinking strategies are not fixed in the brain. They are dynamic. Research shows that the thinking strategies that adolescents use do not differ much from the strategies that adults use. Moreover, adults are also not very good at using rational thinking strategies. People are not well able to rationally weigh all the pros and cons of a particular choice. Not even if they use pen and paper or a computer. In a complex situation, the number of alternatives in the future is simply too large to maintain an overview.

And therefore that is not the way adults make choices. When adults make choices, they use negative and positive experiences in a similar situation from the past. Emotions and feelings play just as important a role in thinking and decisions as cognitive strategies. A problem for adolescents is that they are not yet good at dealing with this way of sifting information. They miss the experiences of the past, but also the communication between essential parts of the brain is still too slow.


A 16 year old adolescent has to give a talk about cloning.  He already did this topic once in primary school. He takes that paper and adjusts it here and there. It is a neat overview of what cloning is, where it has already been applied and who Herman the bull is and how it ended with him. In primary school, the assessment was very good. The result of his tald was assessed insufficient. He had provided a lot of information about cloning, but had not weighed the pros and cons against each other and he had not formulated a substantiated point of view. He is deeply disappointed. In the end, he knew exactly what cloning was, but he had no idea how to separate the pros and cons and reconnect them according to his own point of view. He felt that he had really looked at all the ins and outs of cloning, read all the pros and cons.

An expert in this field handles the information in a different way. For example, he reads an article about cloning and immediately sifts the important information from the non-important ones. The expert categorizes the important information into clusters, which he can then use in his working memory to form a well-founded opinion. A built-in alarm system helps him with this. He does not have to think about much, but he feels: this is good and that is not. The American neurologist Damasio has called this somatic marking.

Adolescents are not yet able to use this system well. The connections in and to the frontal cortex are not yet fast enough for it and, moreover, they do not have enough relevant information or experiences stored in the long-term memory. A young person gains a lot of experiences every day, which then provide him with knowledge and criteria to be able to reach a decision faster and better. This form of learning is based on striking or radical events that have triggered a whole range of emotions, feelings and thoughts. This happens more or less by chance and you can therefore call this form of learning incidental or implicit. Although there are enough striking and dramatic events at school and among the students, school learning is not about chance experiences. The curriculum is precisely for the purpose of allowing the students to very consciously gain very specific pre-determined experiences. There is no student who, unless he happens to grow up in a German-speaking environment, will learn German on his own. This kind of learning can be called intentional or explicit learning. Often this learning is based on Hebb's model. A model that describes how repetition strengthens certain neurological networks in the brain, so that someone can master a skill better and better.


From the age of 14 to 15, young people are better able to perform higher abstract tasks. They can better anticipate upcoming situations and they learn to better estimate the consequences of their actions. Although they can now better estimate the direct consequences of their behaviour, they do not yet understand the long-term effects for themselves and others. This is because the brain systems needed for longer-term estimates are not yet fully active. These are brain systems in which knowledge and experiences are stored. This knowledge and experience is necessary to be able to compare previously experienced situations with new situations in order to make estimates based on this. Adolescents have not yet had those experiences. Moreover, it is very difficult for an adolescent to withdraw from a risky situation, especially if that situation earns him a lot of appreciation from his peers. As a result, an adolescent has less control over their impulses.


Many adolescents, including young adolescents, smoke. It's not that they don't know that smoking is dangerous and addictive. They know that well. The first cigarettes taste very bad. It makes you dizzy and often nauseous. In addition, cigarettes cost a lot of money. Nevertheless, both girls and boys regularly light a cigarette.


Adolescents know it's dangerous, but they don't feel that danger. There are no alarm bells ringing in their heads. Their stomachs don't contract. On the contrary, if you smoke you belong to the group. You get appreciation from your peers. "Oh what a whining, if I want I can stop, just like that and if you stop before your 20th you can't get lung cancer!"

"Can you smoke over your lungs? No, that's not smoking what you're doing. You're puffing a bit. You can'y accept that. You almost choke on the smoke, but now you inhale the smoke too.  The same process takes place when binge drinking or when boosting the scooter, so that the thing travels 80 km per hour and not that lousy 40. "Wow and what's up with a helmet? You wimp!".

A fifteen-year-old can understand the consequences of his actions, but he is not able to feel the possible consequences of his behavior and change accordingly. The consequences of his behavior do not evoke the same emotions as in an adult. Brain systems that inhibit behavior when making dangerous choices by evoking unpleasant feelings such as nausea or tightness work in adolescence, but they are drowned out by systems that respond to reward. Especially when the reward involves admiration from peers.


Young people not only need coaching, but they also need guidance. Explaining that it is dangerous to race through the neighborhood with your scooter at ten o'clock in the evening does not help. The youngster himself knows that. Nothing is more demotivating than wanting to teach someone something they already know.

Then why is he doing it?

The desire for the short-term reward in the form of the thrill of his speed and the appreciation of his friends for his daring is very strong. In an adult with a normally functioning emotional system, in addition to an emotion such as excitement, emotions such as fear, disgust and disapproval would also arise. He starts sweating.  His stomach contracts and the blush of shame rises to his head. Before all that happens, his emotional system has long since kicked in and he's quietly puffing through the street on his scooter and with a helmet on his head.
Adolescents need guidance in this development to prevent them from making irreversible mistakes. It is the job of parents and teachers to prevent peer pressure from allowing a young person to do things that are dangerous and have irreversible consequences. It is therefore important that adults resist overly impulsive behavior and set clear boundaries.

Brains develop in relation to stimuli from the environment. These are not always meaningful, valuable or appropriate incentives. School and the parents must create conditions in which as many meaningful incentives as possible are offered. However, the reality is that at home, but also at school or on the street, adolescents encounter a large amount of unnecessary or even harmful stimuli. From screeching marital quarrels to smoking weed and hearing or even uttering racist remarks. The risk of an adolescent's highly flexible and sensitive brain is that these concepts become ingrained. It takes a lot of effort to change those ingrained naive or evil concepts again.
A person's working memory acts as a spam filter and bouncer at the same time. It filters unnecessary, irrelevant or even malicious information and keeps it out. However, what is an unwelcome guest to an adult who must be stopped as soon as possible may not be so to an adolescent.
Setting boundaries and explicit guidance does not prevent an adolescent from having different thoughts about what is meaningful or very boring. And that's a good thing, because adolescents need to be able to test their own thoughts against reality. However, due to the phase they are in and the pressure of the age group, they are not able to set limits themselves. They need guidance to help them recognize and reject naive or evil concepts.


The intention of feedback is that someone learns something from their own behavior and then deals with it flexibly. Feedback, which indicates that the previous behavior was wrong, negative feedback, activates areas of the brain in adults that are important for goal-directed behavior. The areas are located in the frontal cortex. One of the areas is called the alarm area (the anterior cingulate cortex). It becomes active when people make mistakes. Research among adolescents shows that this area is still developing during adolescence. During negative feedback, the brains of adolescents showed much less activity than the brains of adults. As a result, adolescents are less able to handle punishment and disapproval than adults. The same study found that positive feedback triggered much more brain activity in adolescents.

Define borders

Adolescents' desire for autonomy should not be confused with being autonomous. Adolescents strive for autonomy, but are not yet there. It is precisely the 'battle' that adolescents have to wage with parents, teachers and other adults that is a crucial part of becoming autonomous. The interaction between setting boundaries and adolescents who constantly push the boundaries in their quest for autonomy is an essential part of development. Not setting boundaries or leaving the setting of boundaries to adolescents themselves hinders them from gaining experiences in a safe learning environment. A safe learning environment is not a kind of cage that protects them from any danger from the outside world. That is false safety, because one day they will have to get out of that cage and then they have not learned how to weigh risks and make decisions. They lack the important experiences their somatic marker system needs to make good decisions quickly.
The desire for autonomy naturally entails experimentation. Moreover, the desire for reward and especially reward in the form of appreciation of peers entails risky behaviour. This behavior is necessary to break free from childhood fixed values.
However, the combination of risk behavior and the desire for rewards, if no clear limits are set, leads to unacceptable risks. A safe learning environment ensures that irresponsible actions do not directly lead to irreversible consequences. Moreover, a safe learning environment ensures that an individual learns to make decisions freely without being manipulated or even forced by others. Such a learning environment does not arise automatically, but must be created and directed by parents and teachers.

Talent and attention

There are major differences in the individual development of young people; differences in both physical and cognitive abilities. Those talents are primarily genetically determined. The environment then determines whether or not the potential talents are activated.
Conversely, it doesn't work. A highly inspiring environment cannot conjure up talents that are not there. This does not alter the fact that a structured, inspiring environment can limit the negative consequences for a child at risk.
Children from a socio-economic disadvantaged environment therefore have a double problem. The families from disadvantaged backgrounds have often been at the socio-economic bottom of society for generations. The genetically determined cognitive talents have lagged behind and the environment in which these children grow up is not school-oriented. However, this starting position need not be hopeless. Genetically determined abilities are not static. Major changes can occur in a relatively short time. Education can also have a very positive influence on this. A large number of the children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren of the paupers and unskilled workers of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth have emancipated and socialized themselves. The mulo and later the mavo, which in the Netherlands stands for secondary comprehensive education played a crucial role in this. These school types were not characterized by inspiring subject matter that matched the pupils' perception of the world. The education was boring and strict. Students had little to say or choose. Yet it is precisely these school types that have emancipated the working class in a short period of time and prepared it for a new post-industrial society.

Talent has to do with the speed with which the brain processes information and with the efficiency with which it retains sensory stimuli in working memory. In the working memory, that information is compared with the information already present in the long-term memory. Children with more cognitive talent think more in relationships between information and are more likely to cluster that information into meaningful patterns. They think less in separate boxes. The ability to cluster information and to put those clusters back into meta-clusters is essential for learning, because working memory is used much more efficiently in this way. In order to form clusters based on meaning, one must be able to categorize and generalize the information so that the information comes into a larger context. Categorizing and generalizing are only possible if someone is able to abstract, that is, to separate information from concrete reality.
Most students cannot do this on their own. Teachers should help them make those connections by explicitly building the appropriate examples and metaphors into the explanations. In first instance, this explanation should be as unambiguous as possible, but as students become more talented, side roads and alternatives can be offered. However, this needs to be carefully considered, because these alternatives activate neural networks that influence the original neural clusters and can therefore still lead to confusion in students and subsequently to incorrect conceptions.
In addition to these linguistic thinking strategies, visual-spatial strategies are important for processing information. The latter strategies have been pushed into the background in education due to the great emphasis on communication. Mathematics, for example, has been made more and more concrete at the expense of abstract reasoning. Instead of talking about a square, it is about a paving stone. It is questionable whether this concretization has helped students very much.

Attention is necessary to learn but it is not the same. It's a confusing mistake made by the advocates of the learning styles theory. The proponents of learning styles assume that children have a dominant style of learning and therefore benefit when learning material is presented in a visual, auditory or kinetic way. The underlying asumption is that information entering one sensory channel is processed in the brain independently of information entering another sensory channel. The information would then be learned independently of each other. So that certain visual information is processed differently than auditory information and is also learned independently of auditory information.This assumption is wrong.
In reality, we make no sensory representation, no mental images, in the areas of the brain where the sensory stimuli enter. Only in working memory is a sense of sensory perception is created by a combination of sensory stimuli and stimuli from the long-term memory.